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|županija: Zagrebačka i grad Zagreb|
Zagreb is situated at an elevation of 120 m on both sides of the Sava river at the foot of the Medvednica mountains and the southwestern edge of the Pannonian lowland. Zagreb is the capital of Croatia and has a population of about 779,000 (2005).
Zagreb was first mentioned in 1094 when Ladislaus (László) I, King of Hungary and Croatia, founded the bishopric of Zagreb. The name meant 'at the ditch', in German 'am Graben' which became the origin of the German name, Agram. The town emerged from two settlements, one on the Kaptol hill, which was the seat of the diocese, the other on the neighbouring Gradec (Grič) hill, which became the home of the merchants and craftsmen. In the 13th century southeastern Europe was plagued by invasions of the Asian Tatars. King Béla IV had to take refuge in Gradec and in 1242 thanked the town by granting the Bulla Aurea, the charter by which Zagreb obtained the status of a free royal town. A document of 1554 for the first time mentions Zagreb as the capital of Croatia. During this period the lower town (donji grad) slowly became the new mercantile centre of the town. Between 1756 and 1776 Varaždin had the role as capital. In 1850 the Kaptol, Gradec and the lower town were incorporated to become the new municipality of Zagreb.
In October 1918 the Croatian parliament in Zagreb declared Croatia independent from Austria-Hungary. One month later the Croatia joined the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. During World War II, in 1941, German forces occupied the town. Croatian nationalists at that time declared the 'independent state of Croatia'. In May 1945 Croatia was incorporated into the Peoples Republic of Yugoslavia. In June 1991 the Croatian parliament declared the independence of the new Republic of Croatia with Zagreb as its capital.
The top picture on glass no. 2908 shows a view of the Kaptol with the Cathedral.
The church is dedicated to the Assumption of Mary and to kings Saint Stephen and Saint Ladislaus.
Construction on the cathedral started in 1093, but the building was destroyed by the Tatars in 1242. At the end of the 15th century,
the Ottoman Empire invaded Bosnia and Croatia, triggering the construction of fortification walls around the cathedral, some of which
are still intact. In the 17th century, a fortified renaissance watchtower was erected on the south side, and was used as a military
observation point, because of the Ottoman threat. The cathedral was severely damaged in the 1880 earthquake. The main nave collapsed
and the tower was damaged beyond repair. The restoration of the cathedral in the Neo-Gothic style was led by Hermann Bollé, bringing
the cathedral to its present form. As part of that restoration, two spires 108 m high were raised on the western side.
Trg bana Josipa Jelačića (Jelačić Square) [bottom picture]
is the central square of the city of Zagreb, Croatia, named after Josip Jelačić, Ban of Croatia from 1848 to 1859,
who is especially remembered for his military campaigns during the Revolutions of 1848 and for his abolition of serfdom in Croatia.
The square is located below Zagreb's old city cores Gradec and Kaptol and has existed since the 17th century, originally named Harmica.
The Croatian National Theatre in Zagreb (Hrvatsko narodno kazalište u Zagrebu)
[left, no. 3157] was built by the architects Ferdinand Fellner and Hermann Helmer in 1895.
The building is almost identical to the theatres built by the same architects in Zurich (1891)
and Wiesbaden (1892/1894). The same architects also built the Art Pavilion (1898; see below).
(See also list of other building by Fellner and Helmer depicted on glasses in this collection.)
The Art Pavilion (Umjetnički paviljon) [left, no. 3542]
on King Tomislav Square (Trg kralja Tomislava) is the oldest exhibition hall on the Slavic south and the only building that
has been purposely built for major, representative exhibitions. In 1895 the painter Vlado Bukovac launched the initiative
for the construction of the Art Pavilion. After the closing of the Millennium exhibition in Budapest,
the iron construction frame of the Croatian pavilion was transported to Zagreb. The architects Ferdinand Fellner and
Hermann Helmer were charged with designing the building while local constructors were in charge of the construction works.
After two years of construction, the Pavilion was formally opened on December 15, 1898, with the representative exhibition
'Croatian Salon'. The same architects also built the Croatia National Theatre in Zagreb (1895; see above).
(See also list of further buildings by Fellner and Helmer that are depicted on glasses of this collection.)
Glass no. 047 [right] also shows a view of
The picture on glass no. 447 [left] shows a view of the square,
The Bazilika Srca Isusova (Basilica of the Sacred Heart) [background right]
was built in 1902. It was designed by Zagreb architect Janko Holjac and it makes a perfect example of neo-Baroque sacral architecture.
It is the second-largest church in Zagreb (after the cathedral). In 1941, Pope Pius XII granted the church the honorary title of basilica minor.