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DEUTSCHLAND GERMANY
Bundesland: Baden-Württemberg  
Regierungsbezirk: Karlsruhe  
Stadt: Mannheim  

map

Mannheim

sq: Manhajmi fr: Manheima lt: Manheimas
el: Μάνχαϊμ
be: Мангайм ru, uk: Мангейм bg: Манхайм mk, sr: Манхајм

1091 Mannheim Mannheim is situated at the confluence of the rivers Neckar and Rhine. It was first mentioned in the "Codex Laureshamensis" of AD 766. Since 1284 it was in possession of the count palatines from the Wittelsbach dynasty. Mannheim became an important toll station and soon ranked among the most important places in the Palatinate (Pfalz). Count Palatine Ottheinrich converted to the Protestant faith in 1556. The castle Friedrichsburg and the new town, laid out after a regular, rectangular plan, were founded by Elector Friedrich II in 1606. One year later, Mannheim obtained the first town privileges. During the Thirty Years's War (1618–1648), Mannheim was occupied and destroyed several times. When Count Palatine Philipp Wilhelm of the catholic line of Pfalz-Neuburg inherited Mannheim, catholics were again allowed to be elected into the town council. Elector Carl Philipp (1716–1742) moved his residence from Heidelberg to Mannheim and began to build the impressive Baroque residence (1720–1760). A time of prosperity began under Elector Carl Theodor. However, Mannheim lost much of its importance when Carl Theodor moved the residence to Munich in 1778 after he had become elector of Bavaria in 1777. During the times of the Napoleonic wars, Mannheim became part of the Grand Duchy of Baden in 1802. During the 19th century, the industrial and economic development of the town boomed after the river harbours were enlarged in 1834–1840 and 1885–1887. Large parts of the historic town were destroyed by air raids during World War II.

The Neue Neckarbrücke [left, no.1091], the second bridge across the river Neckar, was completed in 1877. Like all other bridges across the river, the historical bridge was blown up by German troops in 1945.

1953 Mannheim

The Hauptbahnhof (Central Station) [left, no.1953: top picture] was built in 1871–1876 as a replacement for the older Tattersall station.

The old Kaufhaus in Paradeplatz (Parade Square) [left, no.1953: bottom left picture] was built in the 18th century (prior to 1770). In 1910 it was converted and became the new town hall. During World War ;II the building was completely destroyed in 1943. A new modern town hall (Stadthaus) was built in its place in 1991.

The Friedrichspark [left, no.1953: bottom right right picture] was created in 1882. Parts of the park were used for the construction of a skate and ice rink, which was destroyed in World War II. A new ice stadium was built in 1948. The two buildings in the background are the observatory [background center] (built in 1772–1774) and the Jesuit church St. Ignatius [background right]. The church was built in 1733–1760 according to a design of Allessandro Galli da Bibiena. The building was largely destroyed in World War II. Although the reconstruction works started already in 1945 it took until 1960 to complete the restoration.

2259 Mannheim

The square, Friedrichsplatz [near left, no.2259], was created in 1906/1907 for the 300th anniversary of the city. The water tower [background] was built in 1886–1889. The reservoir has a diameter of 19 meters and a height of 60 metres. Until 2000, the beloved landmark of Mannheim was part of the water supply of the city. The garden park around the water tower was laid out between 1899 and 1903.

Some further facts:
Friedrich SCHILLER's play "die Räuber" had its first night at the National Theatre of Mannheim in 1782.
Karl von DRAIS constructed the first 'running machine', a forerunner of the bicycle, in 1817. His first ride took him from Mannheim to Schwetzingen.
In 1819, the student Karl Ludwig SAND assassinated the writer and Russian privy councillor August von Kotzebue. This caused a series of repressive actions by the German governments.
Carl BENZ founded his motor factory in 1883. His first automobile was patented in 1886.


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