|Stadt: Freiburg im Breisgau|
Freiburg im Breisgau is situated at an elevation of 347 m in the Schwarzwald (Black Forest) region of Baden-Württemberg in Germany. The important noble family of the Zähringer built a castle in 1091. The settlements below the castle obtained the status of a market town in 1120. When the Zähringer family became extinct in 1218, Freiburg passed to the Counts of Urach who henceforth named themselves Counts of Freiburg. The citizens of Freiburg obtained their freedom from the rule of the counts in 1368 by paying the sum of 15,000 marks silver. The citizens then chose the Habsburgs as their sovereigns. Between 1415 and 1427, Freiburg enjoyed the status of an Imperial City. Archduke Albrecht VI of Austria founded the university of Freiburg in 1457. After the Thirty years War, the population of Freiburg only counted about 2,000 inhabitants anymore. French troops occupied the town in 1677 and built new fortifications. After 1697, the ownership of the town changed several times between France and Austria, which finally regained Freiburg in 1745. During the Napoleonic rule, Freiburg became part of the new Grand Duchy of Baden in 1805. The seat of the bishop of Konstanz was moved to Freiburg in 1821. After World War II, Freiburg at first was the capital city of the land Baden. When the state of Baden-Württemberg was founded by merging Baden, Württemberg-Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern in 1952, the city became the seat of the administrative district Freiburg.
The minster and cathedral church Unserer Lieben Frau (Our Lady) [left, no. 1175: top, and right, no. 2636] was begun around 1200. The original plans were altered in 1220. The west tower was completed around 1330, the chancel was rebuilt in 1354–1513.
The gate tower, Schwabentor [left, no. 1175: bottom left] was built in the 2nd half of the 13th century (about 1250/70). In 1901, the tower was heightened and remodelled in Neogothic style. This state of the tower is shown on the picture. Most of the alterations were removed in 1953/54.
The Martinstor [left, no. 1175: bottom right] was built at the beginning of the 13th century (the logs must have been felled in 1201/02). It is the oldest of all still existing gate towers of Freiburg. The first mentioning of the tower (Porta Sancti Martini) dates from 1238. At times, the tower was also called Nordinger Tor or Norsinger Tor. In 1901–1903 the height of the tower was increased from 22 m to impressive 60 m.