région: Normandie Normandy
département: 76, Seine-Maritime  


Le Havre

es: El Havre lv: Havra lt: Havras pl: Hawr nrm: Lé Hâvre
el: Χάβρη
mk, sr: Авр be, ru, uk: Гавр bg: Хавьр

2400 Le Havre Le Havre is situated on the right bank of the estuary of the river Seine. With a population of about 191,000 the city is the largest in the former région Haute-Normandie. Le Havre is a sous-préfecture within the département Seine-Maritime and also is the seat of a catholic diocese. The port of Le Havre is the largest port of France after Marseille.

The city was founded in 1517, when it was named Franciscopolis after François I of France, and subsequently named Le Havre-de-Grâce. Le Havre simply means 'the harbour' or 'the port'. Its construction was ordered to replace the ancient harbours of Honfleur and Harfleur whose utility had decreased due to silting. The history of the city is inextricably linked to its harbour. In the 18th century, as trade from the West Indies was added to that of France and Europe, Le Havre began to grow. On 19 November 1793 the city changed its name to Hâvre de Marat and later Hâvre-Marat in honor of the recently deceased Jean-Paul Marat, who was seen as a martyr of the French Revolution. By early 1795, however, Marat's memory had become somewhat tarnished, and on January 13, 1795, the town changed its name once more to simply Le Havre, its modern name. During the 19th century, it became an industrial center. The German-seized city was devastated during the Battle of Normandy in World War II: 5,000 people were killed and 12,000 homes were totally destroyed, mainly by British air attacks. The town centre was rebuilt in modernist style by Auguste Perret. It was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2005.
[Text adapted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Le_Havre]

The picture on glass no. 2400 [left] shows a three-master and a tugboat in the outer port of Le Havre.

2821 Le Havre

The former arsenal [near left, no. 2821: top right picture] in the port of Le Havre near the Bassin du Roi was founded in 1663. Originally, 4 buildings were built between 1663 and 1667. A central depot was created in 1669. The arsenal was rebuilt entirely in 1776–1780 and this building is depicted on this glass. The military port was closed in 1824. and only the central depot (the arsenal) nd the loading ramps of the Bassin du roi remained but the ramps were destroyed already in 1836. The arsenal was listed as a historical monument in 1934. During World War II it was ruined in the course of the bomb raids of September 1944. Only the wings of the main door, a remarkable work of sculptured wood of the 18th century, have survived and are now kept in the Musée André Malraux in Le Havre. [http://leserpentargente.hautetfort.com/archives/category/film/index-3.html/, http://en.patrimoine-de-france.com/seine-maritime/le-havre/ancien-arsenal-3.php, http://lehavrephoto.canalblog.com/archives/2005/11/26/1041261.html]

The top left picture on glass no. 2821 is labeled Depart du Transantlantique. The Compagnie Générale Transatlantique (shortened to "Cie. Gle. Transatlantique", or CGT, and commonly named "Transat"), typically known overseas as the French Line, was a shipping company established in 1861 as an attempt to revive the French merchant marine, the poor state of which was self-evident during the Crimean War of 1856. The company's first vessel had its maiden voyage on 15 June 1864, establishing the company's main route from Le Havre to New York. Other than operating ocean liners, the company also had a significant fleet of freighters. The company survived both World Wars, but the development of jet travel doomed its mainstay passenger liner business. In 1977, the company merged with the Compagnie des Messageries Maritimes to form the Compagnie Générale Maritime. Then, in 1996, the company Compagnie Générale Maritime merged with Compagnie Maritime d'Affrètement to form the CMA CGM. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compagnie_Générale_Transatlantique, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CMA_CGM]

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