|Austria in Italy: Areas Ruled by Austria or Collateral Lines between 1815 and 1866|
|Areas that were part of the Austrian Empire|
Kingdom of Lombardy and Venetia
Emperor Karl VI (Karl III of Spain) (b. 1685, Emperor 1711, d. 1740)
Archduchess Maria Theresia of Austria, (b. 1717, succ. 1740, Queen of Hungary 1741, Queen of Bohemia 1743, d. 1780)
Emperor Joseph II (b. 1741, Roman King 1764, Emperor 1765, d. 1790)
Emperor Leopold II (brother of Joseph II, b. 1747, Grand Duke of Tuscany 1765–1790 (s. below), Emperor 1790, d. 1792)
Emperor Franz I of Austria (b. 1668, Roman Emperor Franz II 1792–1806, proclaimed Austrian Empire 1804, d. 1835)
Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria (b. 1793, succ. 1835, abdic. 1848, d. 1875)
Emperor Franz-Joseph I of Austria (b. 1830, succ. his uncle Ferdinand I 1848, d. 1916)
In Austria, Franz-Joseph was followed by his grandnephew Archduke Karl of Austria-Este (b.1887, d.1922) who became Emperor Karl I (King Karl IV of Hungary) in 1916 until the end of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in 1918. The current head of the House of Habsburg is Archduke Otto of Habsburg-Lothringen (b.1912), eldest son of Karl I and Princess Zita of Bourbon-Parma.
Duchy of Parma
The Principality of Parma became Austrian in 1735 under Emperor Karl VI. Following the death of Karl VI, some of the signatories of the 'Pragmatic Sanction' no longer adhered to its term and disputed the succession of Maria Theresia.
The following War of the Austrian Succession ended in 1748 with the Peace of Aachen (Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle). Maria Theresia managed to sustain Austria's position as a great power but lost most of Silesia as well as the North Italian duchies of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla.
After Marie-Louise's death in 1847, Parma again came into possession of the Bourbon-Parma family which had reigned Parma already from 1748 until 1801. Duke Carlo III (1823–1854) was succeeded by his son, Roberto I (1848–1907) as last Duke of Parma until 1859 (his mother being Duchess Regent). Roberto I had 24 children out of two marriages. His fifth child with his 2nd wife was Princess Zita of Bourbon-Parma (1892–1989) who married Archduke Karl of Austria-Este who became the last Austrian Emperor, Karl I (see above).
|Collateral Line Austria-Este|
Duchy of Modena
Ferdinand I (Karl), Archduke of Austria(-Este) (b. 1754, 4th son of Maria Theresia of Austria and Emperor Franz I, marr. Maria Beatrice of Este-Modena 1771 (daughter of Duke Ercole III, 1727–1803) and founded the line Austria-Este, ousted from Modena by Napoleon I 1796, d. 1806)
As Francesco V died without a male heir, the title 'Duke of Modena' passed to the nephew of Emperor Franz-Joseph I, Archduke Franz-Ferdinand of Austria (1863–1914), who changed his name to Austria-Este. After the assassination of Franz-Ferdinand in 1914 in Sarajevo, his sons, the later Dukes of Hohenberg, could not inherit the title as they were descendent of a morganatic marriage, and the title passed to Franz-Ferdinands nephew, Archduke Karl of Austria (1887–1922) (from then on Austria-Este). When Karl ascended to the Throne of Austria in 1916 as Emperor Karl I, the title passed to his 2nd son Robert of Austria-Este (1915–1996). The current 'Duke of Modena' is Robert's eldest son, Archduke Lorenz of Austria-Este (b.1955), married to Princess Astrid of Belgium.
|Collateral Line Austria-Toscana|
Grand Duchy of Toscana
Emperor Franz I, Franz-Stephan of Lorraine (Lothringen) (b. 1708, Duke Franz III of Lorraine and Bar 1729, Grand Duke of Tuscany 1737, marr. Archduchess Maria Theresia of Austria 1736 and founded the House Habsburg-Lothringen, Emperor 1745, d. 1765)
Ferdinand IV's eldest son, Leopold-Ferdinand Salvator of Habsburg-Lothringen (1868–1935) renounced of his titles (Archduke of Austria, Grand Duke Proper [Ordentlich Großherzog] of Toscana etc.) in 1902 and took the name Leopold Wölfling upon his morganatic marriage in 1903. The title passed to his brother Peter Ferdinand of Habsburg-Lothringen (1874–1948), then to Peter Ferdinand's son, Gottfried von Habsburg-Lothringen (1902–1984). The current 'Ordentlich Großherzog' is Gottfried's eldest son, Leopold (III) Franz of Habsburg-Lothringen (b.1942).