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|Bundesland: Freistaat Bayern||Bavaria|
Ingolstadt is situated at an elevation of 362–411 m on the river Danube in Upper Bavaria. With a population of about 122,400 (2006), Ingolstadt is the second-largest city of the Upper Bavaria region following the state's capital, Munich, and the state's sixth-largest city of the state after Munich, Nürnberg, Augsburg, Würzburg and Regensburg.
The Kreuztor [left, no. 3298: bottom left picture] is the popular landmark of Ingolstadt. The gate was created in 1385 as part of the second town wall that was built in 1363. The name, 'Cross Gate', is derived from the leper house 'to the Holy cross' located to the west outside the town (destroyed in 1546). Of the originally four gates of the town fortification, the Kreuztor is the only one remaining today. [https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kreuztor_(Ingolstadt)]
The Donautor [left, no. 3298: bottom right picture] was the gate on the southern side of the town, towards the Danube. The gate was commpleted in 1430. In 1542 the gate was reinforced in Renaissance style. In 1875, when the first steel bridge across the Danube was built here, the reinfocements of the gate were removed and the gate was 'turned around' so that the richly ornamented façade now looked towards the city. When the bridge was destroyed in 1945 it was decided aftert he war to replace the bridge by a new one. As this new bridge was planned to accomodate a double-track tram line and also should be higher than the old one to allow the passage of ships (as it was thought at that time to make the river navigable here), the Danube Gate was demolished to make room for the new bridgehead. The gate was dismantled stone by stone and the parts were stored until the were used again for the renovation of the 'Steinerne Brücke' (Stone Bridge) in Regensburg. The only parts still remaining in Ingolstadt are the top piece with the stone-carved coat of arms. [https://www.ingolstadt.de/stadtmuseum/scheuerer/ing/donbr-01.htm]
Glass no. 2350 [right] shows a view of
The Moritzkirche (church of St. Mauritius) [right, no. 2350: background], also known as Untere Pfarrkirche ('lower parish church'), goes back to the 9th century. Most parts of the church were built in 1234 and thus the church is the oldest preserved building of Ingolstadt. Rococo elements which added in the 18th century by Johann Baptist Zimmermann were removed in 1880. However, parts of that interior design were recreated after World War II. The actual church tower on the north end of the church [right] dates from the Romanesque period, the so-called Pfeifturm [left] at the south side was built in the Gothic period and originally served as guard tower of the city.
The old town hall [right, no. 2350: foreground] in front of the church goes back to structures built in the 14th century. In 1882 four houses were combined and were rebuilt in Renaissance revival style by Gabriel von Seidl.
The oldest trace of humans in the area, the Steinheim skull, dates from about 350,000 years ago. Further archaeological finds come from the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods. In Ingolstadt proper, the oldest sites are several graves dating from the Bronze Age. About 15 BC, the area became part of the Roman province Raetia. About 50 years later a castellum was founded in what today is Oberstimm, just south of Ingolstadt. The oldest written mention of Ingoldesstat is found in the 'Divisio Regnorum', issued by Charlemagne in AD 806. In this document Ingolstadt, together with Lauterhofen, is mentioned as a royal court. Until the early 13th century, however, no further documents seem to refer to Ingolstadt. Around 1200 at the latest, the rebuilding of Ingolstadt had started. The lords of Bogen had become bailiffs of Niederaltaich and thus also of Ingolstadt. When the lords of Bogen had become extinct in 1242, the Wittelsbach dukes of Bavaria inherited their possessions. It is not certain whether the planned city was founded by Duke Otto II in the 1250s or whether older settlements had already been granted the privileges of a city before. In any case, the privileges of a city were granted around 1250 and were confirmed by Emperor Ludwig IV in 1316. Around 1300 Ingolstadt became part of the duchy of Upper Bavaria, but already three years later the partition of Bavaria was revoked by Ludwig IV as custodian of the sons of Otto III of Lower Bavaria. In 1392 Bavaria was partitioned again into Bavaria-Munich, Bavaria-Landshut and Bavaria-Ingolstadt. In 1447 Bavaria-Ingolstadt fell to the line Bavaria-Ingolstadt. Although Ingolstadt had lost its status of a capital, the dukes of Bavaria-Landshut continued to embellish the town. Duke Ludwig IX ("the Rich") founded the first Bavarian university in Ingolstadt in 1472. In 1503 Bavaria-Landshut fell back to Bavaria-Munich so that Bavaria became a unified duchy again. In the 14th and 15th century Ingolstadt had become a major trading place for salt, wine and beer. The "Reinheitsgebot" governing the brewing of beer, the oldest food law that is still in use, was issued here in 1516 by Duke Wilhelm IV of Bavaria. In 1536 Ingolstadt received the status of a Bavarian fortress, which it retaind for 400 years.
During the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648)
Ingolstadt was besieged in 1632 by the Swedish forcess under King Gustav II Adolf. Gustav's horse was killed by a Bavarian canon and since then
is exhibited in the museum of Ingolstadt (it is believed to be the worlds oldest animal preparation. The general of the Catholic League,
Johann Tserclaes of Tilly, died in Ingolstadt after he had been wounded in battle at Rain am Lech. Although Munich and most other Bavarian cities
were conquered by the Swedes, Ingolstadt could withstand and thus contributed to the fast recovery of Bavaria. During the War of the
Spanish Succession (1701–1714) Ingolstadt was again besieged, unsuccessfully, by the troops of Margrave Ludwig Wilhelm of
Baden-Baden. During the early 18th century the university was expanded especially by the foundation of the
medical faculty, which soon became renowned in Europe. The flourishing period of Ingolstadt ended when the city was conquered by the French army
in 1799. The fortress was pulled down in the same year, and one year later the university was transfered to Landshut
(and from there in 1826 to Munich). When in 1806 the duchy of Bavaria was elevated to become a kingdom, plans
were drawn up to rebuild the fortress. Due to lack of money, the works only could start in 1828. The project was the most expensive
building project of King Ludwig I and was completed only in 1848. The military remained the central force in the city even during the
period of the industrialisation of the late 19th century. In November 1918, a short-lived Soviet Republic was proclaimed. After the
Treaty of Paris (Versailles) of 1919 the military industry was replaced by non-military branches of industry.
The status of Ingolstadt as a Bavarian fortress finally ended in 1937. Parts of the historic city were destroyed during World War II.
After the war, Ingolstadt was rebuilt and became one of Bavaria's strongest economic centres.