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DEUTSCHLAND GERMANY
Bundesland: Hessen Hesse
Regierungsbezirk: Darmstadt  
Stadt: Frankfurt am Main  

map

Frankfurt am Main

es: Fráncfort del Meno fr: Francfort-sur-le-Main it: Francoforte sul Meno dsb: Frankfurt nad Mainom sl: Frankfurt na Majni pl: Frankfurt nad Menem cs: Frankfurt nad Mohanem hsb, sk: Frankfurt nad Mohanom lt: Frankfurtas prie Maino ro: Frankfurte pe Main lv: Frankfurte pie Mainas sq: Frankfurti mbi Main
el: Φρανκφούρτη
bg: Франкфурт на Майн be, ru: Франкфурт-на-Майне mk: Франкфурт на Мајна sr: Франкфурт на Мајни uk: Франкфурт-на-Майні

1804 Frankfurt am Main Frankfurt am Main is situated at an altitude of 112 m on the river Main southeast of the Taunus low mountain region at the northern end of the Rhine Rift in southern Hesse. With a population of about 651,000 Frankfurt is the largest city of Hesse and the fifth-largest city of Germany. The metropolitan region of Frankfurt has a population of about 1.8 million, the region Frankfurt-Rhein-Main with its population of about 5 million is the second largest metropolitan region of Germany.

1288 Frankfurt am Main The oldest traces of regular settlements at this site date from the Neolithic period. During the Roman period it was the site of a Roman military settlement and during the Merowinigian period it was the site of a Frankish royal residence. The oldest document mentioning Franconofurd dates from AD 794. In 843 the town became one of the most important residencies of the East Frankish kingdom and became the place of Imperial diets. In 1220 Frankfurt obtained the status of a Free Imperial City. Since 1147 most of the elections of the Roman (German) kings took place here. The Golden Bull of 1356 determined Frankfurt as the regular place of election. From 1562 onward, Frankfurt also replaced Aachen as the site of coronation of the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire. This tradition continued until the election and coronation in 1792 of the last Holy Roman Emperor, Franz II (1804 Emperor Franz I of Austria).

After the end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, Frankfurt came under the government of Karl Theodor von Dalberg, the last Prince Archbishop and Elector of Mainz, bishop of Konstanz, Worms and Regensburg. Dalberg's principality, which became a member of the Federation of the Rhine, included Frankfurt, Aschaffenburg and Regensburg. In 1810 Dalberg ceded Regensburg to Bavaria but received Hanau and Fulda as compensation. From 1810 until 1813 the remaining territory formed the shortlived Grand Duchy of Frankfurt. Dalberg abdicated in 1813 in favour of Napoleon's stepson Eugène Beauharnais. After the defeat of Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna (1815), Frankfurt was re-established as a Free City, Aschaffenburg came to Bavaria, Hanau and Fulda were given to the Electorate of Hesse (Hesse-Kassel), Wetzlar came to Prussia. Besides Hamburg, Bremen and Lübeck, Frankfurt was thus one of only four of the old free Imperial cities that could retain (or regain) their independence. From 1815 until 1866 Frankfurt was the seat of the 'Bundesversammlung', the supreme organ of the German Confederation (see map). The Frankfurt Parliament (Frankfurter Nationalversammlung) of 1848 was the first elected parliament for all Germany and drew up a constitution ('Paulskirchenverfassung'). During the German-Austrian war of 1866, the city officially sided with the German Confederation although the large parts of the general public sympathised with Austria. In July of that year the Prussia army occupied Frankfurt and in October the city was annexed by Prussia and was incorporated into the Prussian province Hesse-Nassau. It was also a symbol of reconsiliation, that Frankfurt, which thus had lost its independence was chosen in 1871 as the place of the treaty that officially ended the French-German war of 1871 (Treaty of Frankfurt).

The remaining decades of the 19th century were a period of strong industrial growth. For a short period at the beginning of the 20th century, Frankfurt even was the largest German city by area. During the Nazi period, about 9,000 Jewish inhabitants of the city were deported and most of the perished. During World War II, Frankfurt became a target of Allied bombings. Until 1944 the historical city was unique in all Germany because it was a rare example of a metropolis that had preserved its medieval appearance almost in its entirety. After the bomb raids (and the modern reconstructions of the post-war era) almost nothing of the historical cityscape has remained. After the war, Frankfurt became the main seat of the administration of the American occupation zone (see map). Frankfurt campaigned for becoming the new capital of Germany, but in 1949 Bonn was eventually chosen. In the late 20th century the city became one of the most important economic and financial centres of Germany. Since 1999 it is also the seat of the European Central Bank.

982 Frankfurt am Main: Panorama mit Dom / neues Rathaus / Schauspielhaus 1477 Frankfurt am Main: Panorama; Neues Rathaus; Schauspielhaus

The Kaiserdom Sankt Bartholomäus [left and right: top pictures] is Frankfurt's largest church. Although it is popularly called 'Dom' (cathedral) it never was the seat of a bishop. However, its importance as a national symbol is derived from its central role in the Holy Roman Empire. From 1356 onwards, the kings of the Holy Roman Empire were elected in this church, and from 1562 to 1792, the emperors were crowned here. The present church is a three-naved hall church, characterised by a rather short nave (only 3 bays) and a long transept from the 14th century. The monumental western tower dates from the 15th century. During the early 18th century, much of the old Gothic interior decorations was remodeled in Baroque style. After a large fire in 1866 the church was restored. During these works, the west tower was also completed based on the original design of 1415, which in the 15th century had not been completed. In 1877 the tower was completed (now 95 m tall) and the church was reopened in the following year. The bombings of 1943 and especially 1944, which destroyed allmost the entire old town, also almost destroyed the cathedral. The church burnt out completely, only the tower survived. The reconstruction of the church was begun in 1948 and lasted until 1953.

The Schauspielhaus (municipal theatre) [bottom right pictures] was built in 1899–1902 by Heinrich Seeling and replaced the previous theatre that had been built in 1780–1782. The theatre was destroyed in 1944. In its place, the new new Opera House was built after the war.

2077 Frankfurt am Main: Paulsplatz

The bottom left pictures on the two glasses no.982 and 1477 [above left and right] and the picture on glass no.2077 [left] show the Paulsplatz, the largest square in the old inner city of Frankfurt. The square's name comes from the church of St. Paul (Paulskirche) that was built here in 1789–1833, which is famous as the seat of the Frankfurt National Assembly of 1848, the first freely-elected German parliament. The tall obelisk also seen on the far right is the Unity Monument (Einheitsdenkmal) which was erected in 1903 and commemorates the events that preceded the unification of the many German states in the 19h century. The monument was designed by the architect Friedrich Maximilian Hessemer and the sculptor Hugo Kaufmann. The Bronze sculptures that were placed on the three sides of the monument and that dymbolized the 'Free Citizens', the 'Alma Mater' and the 'Choir Movement', were melted down in 1940. The Bronze statue on top of the obelisk is sometimes described as a representation of Klio, the muse of epics, or of Germania. The monument was inaugurated on 18 October 1903, the 90th anniversary of the Battle of Leipzig (Battle of the Nations).

2362 Frankfurt am Main: Opernplatz; Zeil; Kaiserstraße

The top picture on glass no.2362 [near left] show the Opernplatz, named for the Old Opera, which had been built on its side in 1880. The square is located on a site that was once occupied by a town gate, the Bockenheimer Tor. After the fortifications had been pulled down, a new portal in Classicist style was erected, but was pulled down again alrady in 1875 to make way for the, then new, opera house. The building, one of the largest opera houses of its time, was completed in 1880. The theatre was severely damaged in Worlw War II and remained in ruins for decades. The theatre was reopened only in 1981, but despite its new name "Alte Oper" (Old Opera) today operates as a concert and event hall.

The Zeil [bottom left] (literally 'row') is certainly one of the best-known streets of Frankfurt. When in 1333 the Neustadt ('New Town') of Frankfurt was founded outside the medieval town wall, a row of houses was built parallel to the old fortifications, leaving a broad strip between the building and the old town moat. In the 16th century the moat was filled in and the plot was covered with new buildings. This is why the Zeil always remained one of the broadest streets of Frankfurt. In 1730 the Baroque main guards building (Hauptwache) was built at the western end of the Zeil. The other end was marked by the building of the Konstabler guards (Konstablerwache), but that building was pulled down already in 1822. During the late 18th and early 19th century many buildings that lined the Zeil were rebuilt in Classicist style. After 1871, during the building boom of the 'Gründerzeit', many department stores replaced the old residential palaces. During a bomb raid on 22 March, 1944, the Zeil was almost completely destroyed. After the war, the street was rebuilt in a typically post-war, simple modern style. Today, the Zeil is one of the busiest shopping streets of Germany.

The Kaiserstraße [bottom right] connects the inner city with Frankfurt central railway station. The section between Rossmarkt and Taunusanlage (Taunus park) was laid out in 1874. At the time it connected the inner city with three railway stations that were located at the Taunusanlage, i.e. the terminus stations of the Taunus Railroad, the Main-Neckar Railroad and the Main-Weser Railroad. In 1888 these stations were replaced by the new central station which was located about 1 km further west. The area that prior to that had been occupied by tracks and other railway grounds, now was transformed into a new city quarter (Bahnhofsviertel) with the outer section of Kaiserstraße as its main street. Between 1947 and 1955 the street was named Friedrich-Ebert-Straße for F. Ebert, the first president of the Weimar Republic. Despite the destructions during World War II and the many demolitions that occurred in Frankfurt during the 1960's, the Kaiserstraße is one of only few streets of Frankfurt that could retain most of its original buildings from the late 19th century.

1295 Frankfurt am Main: Römerberg mit Römer

Glass no.1295 [left] shows a picture of the Römerberg, the centre of the historic old town since the High Middle Ages. The Römer is the historical town hall of Frankfurt. Originally, the complex consisted of three separate building, the middle of which had been named 'Zum Römer'. Together with the building 'Goldener Schwan' it was sold in 1405 to the city council which converted it to the new town hall. The next buildings to be integrated into the town hall were the building 'Frauenrode' in 1435, 'Viole' in 1510, 'Schwarzenfels' in 1542, 'Wanebach' in 1596, 'Frauenstein' and 'Salzhaus' in 1843, and 'Alt-Limpurg' and 'Silberberg in 1878. In 1896–1900 the old simple Gothic façades did not meet the esthetic standards of the time any more and it was decided to replace them in the fashionale Gothic revival style. The whole complex was largely destroyed by the bombing on 22 March 1944 and was reconstructed in 1951–1953, partly following the original designs (Alt-Limpurg, Römer and Löwenstein), partly as new creations.

1689 Frankfurt am Main: Rossmarkt; Schiller-Denkmal; Eschenheimer Turm

The top picture on glass no.1689 [right] shows the square Rossmarkt ('Horse Market'), so named as the site of horse trading in times past. The square obtained its appearance as depicted on the glass iaround 1900. Most of the buildings were destroyed in 1944.

The monument for Johann Wolfgang von Goethe [right, no.1689: bottom left picture] is located in the central part of Rossmarkt, which since 1844 is called Goetheplatz. The monument was created in 1840 by Ludwig Schwanthaler. The monument was set up here in 1844.

1132 Frankfurt am Main: Eschenheimer Tor

The Eschenheimer Tor (Eschenheim Gate) [near left, no.1132, and right, no.1689: bottom right picture] is located a short distance away north of the square Hauptwache. The square was created in 1810 when the fortifications of 1333 and the Baroque bastions were pulled down. The gate tower (Eschenheimer Turm, 47 m tall) was preserved as the most representative of the former gate towers. The tower was built in 1400–1428.
1704 Frankfurt am Main: Festhalle 687 Frankfurt am Main: Internationale Luftschiffahrtaustellung Frankfurt/Main 1909

 

The Festhalle [lef, no.1704] was built in 1908–1909 by Friedrich von Thiersch. At the time of its construction, the building included Europe's largest cupola (total height: 40 m). The building had an interior length of 90 meters and an interior width of 60 metres. The Festhalle was officially opened by German Emperor Wilhelm II on 19 May 1909.

In July of 1909 the International Airship Exposition (International Luftschifffahrtausstellung) [right, no.687] opened at the fair grounds and attracted some 1.5 million visitors.

989 Frankfurt am Main: Palmengarten

 

The Palmengarten was established in 1868. On 50 acers, the garden displays numerous plants throughout the year and offers a variety of recreational activities.

The Gesellschaftshaus [left, no.989] was built in 1875–1876 by Fritz Kayser and Josef Durm. The 'Palmenhaus' at its back side was added in 1869.

 

Höchst am Main

In 1928 Höchst am Main was incorporated into Frankfurt am Main. It is situated about 10 km west of downtown Frankfurt on the north bank of the Main river at the Nidda River estuary. In contrast to most other Frankfurt city districts, Höchst is an old historical city (with town privileges since 1355) and is still the most important subcenter in the western part of Frankfurt. Until 1987 Höchst was the administration seat of an independent district (Landkreis). Höchst is now the center of the administrational district Frankfurt-West with about 120,000 residents.

2231 Frankfurt am Main: Höchst am Main Höchst is first mentioned in AD 790 as Hostat (meaning high site or high place). In 1355 Höchst received its town privileges by Emperor Karl IV. In the following year, the emperor granted additional privileges including the right to hold weekly markets. Despite its city status, Höchst remained under the# administration by the archbishops of Mainz. Situated at the eastern border of the ecclesiastical state, Höchst was a border town with customs facilities. During the 18th century, Höchst became a flourishing trading place. The Reichsdeputationshauptschluss of 1802 and the following secularization brought an end to the ecclesiastical state of Mainz. Höchst became part of the Principality of Nassau-Usingen, which soon after merged into the Duchy of Nassau. In 1821 a reform of the dioceses followed, detaching Höchst from the diocese of Mainz and placing it in the newly established diocese of Limburg. The industrial revolution of the 19th century was to shape Höchst again. The "Theerfarbenfabrik Meister, Lucius & Co." was founded in 1863. Under the name "Farbwerke Höchst" and later "Hoechst AG" it became one of Germany's leading chemical companies. After the Prussian-Austrian War of 1866, Höchst together with Nassau became part of Prussia. After World War I and the Treaty of Paris (Versailles), Höchst was occupied by France and remained under French supervision until 1929. In 1928, Höchst am Main was incorporated into Frankfurt am Main.
[Text in part adapted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Höchst_(Frankfurt_am_Main)]

Höchst castle [left] goes back to a stronghold and toll station of the 14th century. The tall keep is the only remnant of this structure from the Gothic period. In 1568 the castle was converted into a Renaissance residential castle of the archbishops of Mainz. Large parts of this castle were destroyed during the Thirty Years' War in 1635. In 1681 the keep received its characteristic Baroque domed roof. In 1772–1774, the brickls of the ruins of the Renaissance castle were used for the construction of the Bolongaro Palace in Höchst Neustadt and only the vaults of the old castle remain today. A new wing was added to Höchst castle in the 19th century. After World War II it was used by the US radio station AFN; later, it was acquired by Hoechst AG. After the fusion of the company with Rhone-Poulenc and the relocation of the corporation's principal offices to Stasbourg, the castle was purchased by the German Foundation for the Protection of Historical Monuments (Deutsche Stiftung Denkmalschutz).

The Justinuskirche (church of St. Justin) [right] is the oldest preserved historical building of Frankfurt. The three-naved basilica dates from aournd AD 830. The choir in Late Gothic style was added after 1441. The church in one of only few examples of early medieval churches that have remained in Germany.


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