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|Bundesland: Niedersachsen||Lower Saxony|
Norderney is one of the East Frisian Islands (Borkum, Memmert, Juist, Norderney, Baltrum, Langeoog, Spiekeroog and Wangerooge). The islands were formed about 2,000 years ago when the rise of the sea level after the last Ice Age had come to an end and sand was heaped up by the tides and by the wind. The islands were first mentioend in 1398. These documents mentions two islands, Burse (Buyze, Buise) and Oesterende, between Juist and Borkum. These two were the remaining parts of a former, bigger, single island, which had broken apart after many high tides during the 14th century. While the western part, Burse, gradually disappeared until 1700, the eastern part, Oesterende, began to grow. This island finally was mentioned as "Ny norderoghe", "Norderoog" or "Norder neye oog" (northern new island) in the 15th century. Until about the 16th century the modern name, Norderney, came in use.
The first settlement on the western end of the island was founded by fishermen probably in the 13th or 14th century. They also obtained the
right to collect goods that were washed ashore from sunken ships. From the 18th century onward freight shipping also became an important
source of income for the inhabitants of the island. The first sea bath was founded already in 1797 and opened in 1800, which marked the long tradition
of Norderney as a sea-side resort. Between 1806 and 1810 Norderney was occupied by the Kingdom of Holland, and in 1810 the island
became part of the département Ems Orientale within the French Empire. The French prohibited fishing and closed the spa because they stationed some 300 soldiers
on the island in order to build a defense post against the English. When the French occupation ended in 1813 Norderney at first became part of Prussia
before it was ceded in 1815 to the Kingdom of Hannover. After that time the fishing industry and the spa began to prosper again,
but as a source of income fishing more or less ended at the end of the 19th century. The spa, however, had become one of the most popular ones in Europe
for the higher societies after the Duke of Cumberland (the crown prince of Hannover, from 1837 King Ernst August of Hannover)
had visited Norderney regularly since 1836.
From 1851 onward (under the blind King Georg V of Hannover) Norderney even was the official summer residence of the royal Hannover court.
Together with the kingdom of Hannover, Norderney was annexed by Prussia in 1866. During World War I the spa was closed and the
island was transformed into a sea fortress. In 1935 it became a military base again. In 1945 the island remained under
English military administration but a limited number of guests were already allowed to visit the island. The village of Norderney
was chartered as a town in 1948. The English occupation ended in 1952. Today the island has a population of about 6,500 permanent and about
3,600 temporary residents. Per year more than 290,000 guests visit the island.