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|Bundesland: Niedersachsen||Lower Saxony|
Hannover, the capital of Germany's state of Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony), is situated at an elevation of 55 m at the river Leine, between the foothills of the Weserbergland to the west and the Lüneburger Heide to the north. Hannover has a population of about 515,800 (2005).
The origins of Hannover (English spelling: Hanover) probably go back to the 10th century. The earliest written mention of the vicus Hanovere is found in the "Miracula Sancti Bernwardi" of 1150. In 1241 Hannover was chartered as a town. The city saw its first flourishing period in the 14th century. In 1636, during the Thirty Years' War (16181648), Duke Georg of Braunschweig and Lüneburg-Calenberg chose the fortified town as his new residence. In 1741 Elector Georg I Ludwig acceeded to the British and Irish throne as George I. The personal union between the United Kingdom and Hannover ended in 1830 with the death of King William (Wilhelm) IV. While Queen Victoria succeeded her uncle as Queen of the United Kingdom, her brother Ernst August, 1st Duke of Cumberland, followed Wilhelm IV as King of Hannover. During the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, King Georg V had sided with Austria. After the victory of Prussia, Georg V had to abdicate and went into exile in Austria (Grünau im Almtal). Hannover became a Prussian province. The city was heavily damaged during World war II and was rebuilt after the war according to modern concepts. In 2001, the city of Hannover and the district Hannover were amalgamated into the new Region Hannover.
The Opera House [left, no. 2146: top picture, and right, no. 1116] was built as Königliches Hoftheater (Royal Court Theatre) in 18451852 by Georg Ludwig Friedrich Laves for King Ernst August. Originally, the complex included the main stage and a concert hall. The concert hall was converted into a rehearsal stage in 1894/1895 and finally into a theatre museum in 1927. The theatre was destroyed by Allied bombs in July 1943, leaving only the exterior walls and the parterre foyers. In 19491950 the exterior was restored to the original designs, while the interior was rebuilt to modern designs.
The Sachsenross monument [left, no. 2146: bottom left picture], representing the heraldic animal of Hannover (Lower Saxony), was created in 18611876 by the sculptor Friedrich Wilhelm Wolff. It is located in front of the Welfenschloss (see below).
The soldiers' monument monument [left, no. 2146: bottom right picture], a memorial to the soldiers killed in the French-German war of 1870/1871, was created in 1884. In 1941 the bronze sculptures were melted down and the remaining parts were removed.
The Welfenschloss (Castle of the Guelphs) [left, no. 2153] was built by the architect Christian Heinrich Tramm in place of the older Montbrillant castle that had been built in the 18th century. The construction of the new castle began in 1857. The palace was intended to become the new residence of the royal family of Hannover. However, the the castle never actually served as residence for the family as the kingdom of Hannover was annexed by Prussia already in 1866 and the family had to go into exile to Austria (see Grünau im Almtal). In 18751879 the complex was adapted to be used by the Higher Trade School, which later became the Royal Technical College. From that point onwards it developed into a modern university, currently attended by about 32,000 students.
The Provinzialmuseum [left, no. 854], today named Niedersächsisches Landesmuseum,
was built in 18971901 by the architect Hubert Oswald Stier in monumental neo-Renaissance style.
Hannover Hauptbahnhof [left] is the central railway station of Hannover.
The first station on the current site, a temporary building serving the line to Lehrte, was erected in 1843. From 1845 to 1847, a more permanent station,
one of the first through stations, was built on the same site. After tearing down the old buildings in 1875, today's station was constructed from 1876 to 1879,
further extended by an additional station hall in 1910. The station was badly damaged during World War II and underwent extensive remodeling, finished in 1948.
By 1963, the rails were electrified and in 1973 construction of the Hannover-Würzburg high-speed rail line began.
The station building itself underwent extensive remodeling in the 1970s during the construction of the Hannover Stadtbahn system, opening in 1976 and 1979 and
including a passenger tunnel underneath the station, connecting the inner city district around Kröpcke to the Stadtbahn station at Raschplatz.
The station underwent remodeling again for the Expo 2000, construction finishing on 1 May 2000. The station was equipped with a shopping centre, lifts to all
platforms and new signage according to the current DB corporate design. The long-neglected passenger subway below the station, which was built in the 1970s for
the Hannover Stadtbahn, underwent extensive remodeling from 2004 to early 2006.
[Text adapted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hannover_Hauptbahnhof]
The Georgstraße [left] between Steintor and Aegidientorplatz is Hannover's most fashionable boulevard. The street is named for George III (17601801 King of Great Britain and King of Ireland, 18011820 King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Braunschweig and Lüneburg, Elector (1815 King) of Hannover).
The Herrenhäuser Allee [right] was laid out in 1726 to provide access to
Herrenhausen Castle. Four rows of lime (linden) trees lined three lanes, one for riders, the middle for coaches, and the third
for pedestrians. In World War II the alley was severely hit. In 19721974 one thousand three hundred new
trees were planted.